Write in Molecular Psychiatry, The UK-based research team is exploring the mechanisms in the body how omega-3 fatty acids may work to reduce inflammation or depression, providing a springboard for more focused research.
“We have known for some time that omega-3 PUFAs can induce antidepressant and anti-inflammatory effects, but without better understanding how this happens in the human brain, it has been difficult to develop treatments.Says Dr Alessandra Borsini, lead author of the study and senior postdoctoral neuroscientist at King’s College London.
“Our study shed light on the molecular mechanisms involved in this relationship, which may inform the development of potential new treatments for depression using omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs).”In addition to this, you will need to know more about it.
Collaboration with the University of ManchesterIn addition to this, you will need to know more about it.
The study, which involved colleagues at the University of Manchester, focused on metabolites of omega-3 fatty acids called lipid mediators and their ability to protect the brain from the harmful effects of inflammation.
Using validation in vitroIn a human cell model using hippocampal cells, the team first treated these cells with omega-3 fatty acids, EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid).
The cells were then exposed to chemical messengers involved in inflammation, preventing increased cell death and reduced production of new neurons.
Further work revealed that these effects were overseen by lipid mediators produced by EPA and DHA, called hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (HEPE), hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (HDHA), epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (EpETE) and epoxydocosapentaenoic acid (EpDPA).
The team then introduced an enzyme inhibitor that increased the availability of EpETE and EpDPA, which could form the basis of therapy for depression.
“The lipid mediators identified by our research are broken down in the body relatively quickly, which means they may only be available for a relatively short period of time. “Explains Professor Anna Nicolaou, Professor of Biological Chemistry at the Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences at the University of Manchester.
“By testing the effect of inhibitors of enzymes involved in the metabolism of omega-3 PUFAs, we have shown that we can dramatically improve the length of time they can have an effect in the body and ultimately increase their effectiveness. In addition to this, you will need to know more about it.
“This is very important for the development of new treatments and means that patients could receive higher doses of EPA and DHA with these enzyme inhibitors to increase the amount of these important compounds in their blood over time.”In addition to this, you will need to know more about it.
“An internationally respected team”In addition to this, you will need to know more about it.
The reaction of experts to the results has been generally positive with Dr Eric Ruhé, psychiatrist-epidemiologist at Radboud University Medical Center in the Netherlands, saying: “If the next steps are taken and turn out to be positive, this finding could be an important contribution to pre-stratifying depressed patients to receive targeted mechanistic-based treatments instead of the current trial-and-change approach. “In addition to this, you will need to know more about it.
Dr Michael Bloomfield, Excellence Fellow, Head of Translational Psychiatry Research Group and Consultant Psychiatrist at UCL, added: “This is fascinating research carried out by a team of internationally renowned scientists. In addition to this, you will need to know more about it.
“This new study sheds light on potential mechanisms that may underlie the response to omega oils. This is important because understanding these mechanisms could lead to new treatment targets and could explain why some people seem to get better with omega oils and others don’t. In addition to this, you will need to know more about it.
“That said, more research is needed on omega oils and their potential mechanisms of action.”In addition to this, you will need to know more about it.
Fadditional research needed In addition to this, you will need to know more about it.
Lead author of the article, Professor Carmine Pariante, of the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Maudsley BRC Affective Disorders Interface with Medicine Theme Lead said: “By identifying and measuring the exact lipid mediators involved, identifying the enzyme that prolongs their effects, and finding the same lipid mediators in depressed patients treated with omega-3 PUFAs and demonstrating improvements in symptoms, we have provided vital information to help shape clinical trial results for future therapeutic approaches with omega-3 fatty acids.In addition to this, you will need to know more about it.
“It’s important to point out that our research hasn’t shown that by simply increasing omega-3 fatty acids in our diet or by taking nutritional supplements, we can reduce inflammation or depression. In addition to this, you will need to know more about it.
“The mechanisms underlying the associations between depression and omega-3 PUFAs are complex and require additional research and clinical trials to fully understand how they work and inform future therapeutic approaches. “In addition to this, you will need to know more about it.
Source: Nature Molecular PsychiatryIn addition to this, you will need to know more about it.
Posted online: doi.org/10.1038/s41380-021-01160-8In addition to this, you will need to know more about it.
“Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids protect against inflammation through production of lipid mediators LOX and CYP450: relevance for major depression and for human hippocampal neurogenesis.”
Authors: Borsini, A et al.